- February 8, 2023
If you are heading outside this summer, it is imperative to take precautions to protect your body. In addition to sunscreen and other safety measures, consider using insect repellent. It will help you avoid not only pesky mosquitoes, but also harmful tick bites that have the ability to transmit Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a
If you are heading outside this summer, it is imperative to take precautions to protect your body. In addition to sunscreen and other safety measures, consider using insect repellent. It will help you avoid not only pesky mosquitoes, but also harmful tick bites that have the ability to transmit Lyme disease.
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that ticks can carry if they bite infected mice or deer. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported each year, however due to its nuances, it is estimated that it is more likely that 476,000 people acquire Lyme disease each year.
Symptoms of Lyme Disease
You may see the following symptoms days or weeks after an infected tick has been attached to you for at least 24 hours:
– General ill feeling (chills, fever, headaches, etc.)
– Muscle or joint pain
– Stiff neck
– Rash at the bite site (expanding red circle with a bull’s eye or target appearance)
In more severe cases, Lyme disease can cause problems with nerves and thinking. When detected early, the disease can be treated effectively with antibiotics. For best results, seek treatment by a physician who follows guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Infectious Disease Society of America as soon as you show signs of these symptoms.
Safe Removal of Ticks
After 24 hours of tick attachment, the risk of getting Lyme disease rises to 15%, and to even higher levels after 48 to 72 hours. If you notice a tick attached to you or a loved one, you will want to remove it as quickly and safely as possible. It’s important to know that you should not swat, smash, or squeeze it, as it can accelerate the infection process. Ultimately, it is best if the tick stays intact during removal as Lyme disease rests within its whole system
– Use tweezers to steadily remove the tick. Wear gloves if possible.
– Kill the tick by soaking it in rubbing alcohol or flushing it down the toilet. Do not crush it.
– Wash the area with soap and water to clean the area the tick was found.
A small rash (size of a quarter) may be visible after removal. If the bull’s eye or target rash grows from 6 to 30 centimeters, this may be an early indicator of Lyme disease.
If you find a tick on your person, unattached, and while outside, it is safe to just brush it off. If you are indoors, make sure that it is brushed off outdoors or killed so it does not later attach to another person or pet.
Preventing Tick Bites
If you know that you are going to be spending time outside, especially in wooded, overgrown, or grassy areas, you should prepare to do the follow to prevent tick bites.
Use insect repellent:
– Make sure this repellent contains at least 20% DEET. DEET is a substance that has been studied by the Environmental Protection Agency and deemed safe for human use.
– Natural repellents such as lavender, peppermint, lemongrass, thyme, and garlic oils may also prove effective.
Pick the right clothing:
– It is harder for ticks to attach if you’re wearing a hat, long sleeves, and pants tucked into boots.
– Wear light colored clothing so that ticks are easily visible.
– Treat your clothing with Permethrin or purchase pre-treated clothing with tick repellent.
– Use hot water and high heat to wash and dry your clothing soon after returning indoors.
– Check and double check your clothing and skin for ticks. These insects are very small, about the size of a pinhead. Asking for an extra pair of eyes to help look for them after an outing would be even better.
– Shower within two hours of being outdoors. Ticks will seek out the warmest parts of your body, like your scalp, armpits, and groin. Start from the top of your body and scan your way down.
– Comb through the hair and lift strands to look behind the ears, along the scalp line, and then along the part.
– Examine the neck, shoulders, and arms. Raise the arms and carefully examine the area along the armpits.
– Check the abdomen and back as well as the buttocks and groin areas.
– Carefully scan legs, ankles, and toes.
If you experience a tick bite and need medical attention, call your primary care doctor. If possible, keep the tick that was attached to you in a secure container and bring it with you to your appointment for testing.
by Rutul Dalal, MD
Infectious Disease, UPMC
Rutul Dalal, MD, is the medical director of infectious disease, UPMC in North Central Pa., and sees patients at UPMC Williamsport, 700 High St., Williamsport. To schedule an appointment with Dr. Dalal, call 570-321-2181. For more information, visit UPMC.com.